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Theories of Change


American Institutes for Research. (2015). CBAM: The concerns-based adoption model. Retrieved from

Bryk, A. S., Gomez, L., Grunow, A., & LeMahieu, P. (2015). Learning to improve: How America’s schools can get better at getting better. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., & Brown, K. G. (2016). Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. Human Relations, 69(1), 33-60.

Grunow, A. (2015, July 21). Improvement discipline in practice. Retrieved from

Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (2015). Implementing change: Patterns, principles and potholes (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Kania, J., & Kramer, M. (2011). Collective impact. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from

Kotter, J. P. (2012). Accelerate! Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from

Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

Kotter, J. P. (2014). Accelerate: Building strategic agility for a faster-moving world. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

Lewin, K. (1947a). Frontiers in group dynamics: Concept, method and reality in social science; Social equilibria and social change. Human Relations, 1(1), 5–41.

Lewin, K. (1947b). Group decision and social change. In T. M. Newcomb, & E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology. New York, NY: Henry Holt.

Mind Tools. (N.d). Lewin’s change management model: Understanding the three stages of change. Retrieved from

This Foundational Concept can be found in the following module pages: