Skip to main content

The Research Evidence About Coaching


Biancarosa, G, Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative development on student learning. The Elementary School Journal, 111(1), 7-34.

Blazar, D., & Kraft, M. A. (2015). Exploring mechanisms of effective teacher coaching. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 37(4), 542–566.

Coburn, C. E., & Woulfin, S. L. (2012). Reading coaches and the relationship between policy and practice. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(1), 5-30.

Denton, C. A., & Hasbrouck, J. (2009). A description of instructional coaching and its relationship to consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 19, 150-175.

Deussen, T., Coskie, T., Robinson, L., & Autio, E. (2007). “Coach” can mean many things: Five categories of literacy coaches in Reading First. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved from

Elish-Piper, L., & L’Allier, S. K. (2010). Exploring the relationship between literacy coaching and student reading achievement in grades K–1. Literacy Research and Instruction, 49(2), 162-174.

Ermeling, B. A., Tatsui, T., & Young, K. (2015). Virtual coaching for instructional leaders: A multi­method investigation of technology­enabled external assistance. Teachers College Record, 117(11), 1-48.

Howley, A., Dudek, M., Rittenberg, R., & Larson, W. (2014). The development of a valid and reliable instrument for measuring instructional coaching skills. Professional Development in Education, 40(5), 779-801.

Huguet, A., Marsh, J.A., & Farrell, C. C. (2014). Building teachers’ data-use capacity: Insights from strong and developing coaches. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(52). Retrieved from

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (2004). P.L. 101-476, 20 U.S.C § 1400 et seq.

Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1982, October). The coaching of teaching. Educational Leadership, pp. 4-8, 10.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research, 88(4), 547–588.

Kruse, S. D., & Zimmerman, B. (2012). Can literacy coaching provide a model for school-wide professional learning? Educational Research Journal, 2(9), 279-291.

Knight, J. (2009). Instructional coaching. In J. Knight (Ed.), Coaching: Approaches and perspectives (2nd ed.) (pp. 29 - 55). New York, NY: Corwin.

Mangin, M. M., & Dunsmore, K. (2015). How the framing of instructional coaching as a lever for systemic or individual reform influences the enactment of coaching. Educational Administration Quarterly, 51(2), 179-213.

Matsumura, L. C., & Wang, E. (2014). Principals’ sensemaking of coaching for ambitious reading instruction in a high-stakes accountability policy environment. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 22(51). Retrieved from

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (2002). P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319

Reading Excellence Act. (1999). P.L. 105-277 [provisions supplanted by NCLB (2002)]

Reddy, L. A., Dudek, C., & Lekwa, A. (2017). Classroom strategies coaching model: Integration and instructional coaching. Theory Into Practice, 56, 46-55.

Robertson, D. A., Padesky, L. B., Ford-Connors, E., & Paratore, J. R. (2020). What does it mean to say coaching is relational? Journal of Literacy Research, 52(1), 55–78.

Showers, B., & Joyce, B. (1996). The evolution of peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 12-16.

This Foundational Concept can be found in the following module pages: